Nanostructuring reduces the size of the millions of crystals within metals and changes the boundaries between each crystal.
The techniques can be applied to virtually any metal. There are thousands of applications for such super strong ultrafine grain metals.
At the end of the Soviet era, US scientists joined with Russian scientists to transform the original invention into an economical method for metal production.
The breakthroughs offered by nanostructuring can be understood by comparing the size of the building blocks of metals with living cells & the human body.